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Name   관리자 Hit 459




NOTES


 


This essay, in an earlier and shorter form, was presented as a keynote address at the Korea on the Global Stage Symposium, Sound of Human Spirit: Musan Cho Oh-hyun, held at David Browner Center at the University of California, Berkeley, March 20,2015, sponsored by the Center for Korean Studies and the Institute of East Asian Studies.


 


1. Applying syllabic parallelism in English to Japanese haiku tends not to work well, but the more open and flexible structure of Korean sijo makes this possible.


2. One often refers to a point of view or consciousness as being in a literary work, but it is important to remember that that is just a figure of speech we should not take for granted. What we attribute to the work is actually our minds triggered by the symbols in the text, which plays our consciousness like a musical score.


3. When I finally met Master Cho at the symposium in his honor at UC Berkeley, one of the things he mentioned was that the great Tang poet Tu Fu said he wrote poetry to shock the reader.


4. In 2011, about a year after the Harvard conference, I also saw Banmei Takahasi’s Zen, a film on the life of Dōgen Zenji, in which Dōgen meets black robed Chan monks in China in the thirteenth century.


5. Every word could mean something else, beginning with janae, which is just “you” on the surface but could be a reference to the fact that I was sleeping.


6. The current name, Jogye, was adopted in 826.


7. Bodhidharma(470-593) was the first Patriarch of Zen. His successors were Huike(487-593), Sengcan(d.606), Diaoxin(580-651), Hongren(601-674), and finally Huineng(638-713).


8. junma(준마-駿馬:빠르게 잘 달리는 말) as in “a horse that runs swiftly and well.” Horse symbolism seems to be important to me. My first essay in Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture 1(2007), published by the Harvard University Korea Institute, included an explication of the Korean Heavenly Horse and its connection to dream, language, and light in Lee Chang-dong’s first short story, “The Dreaming Beast”(pp.338-56).


9. I did not actually meet Master Cho in person(or communicate with him directly) until the morning of the Berkeley symposium nearly five years later, on March 20, 2015.


10. In Buddhism, these are form, sensation, perception, mental formations, and consciousness- the five “heaps” or “aggregate” that constitute our understanding and perception of mundane reality. The skandhas also consitute our very sense of identity. In Zen, all things constituted of skandhas are inherently empty of independent existence.


11. As quoted by Kosho Uchiyama(1912-1998), Zen abbot of Antai-ji, in giving instructions on zazen practice.


12. The concept of che-yong(體用),or “essence function,” also central to Korean Buddhism, is often illustrated via the metaphor of a tree. It is a way of cutting through the binary distinction of absolute and conditional reality.


13. 永嘉證道歌, known as Jeungdoga in Korean.


14. These principles were central to the teaching of thr great Silla-period monk Weonhyo(617-686) and the Hwaeom(flower Garland) School of Korean Buddhism.


 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


 


MANY THANKS TO the Manhae Foundation and Professor Kwon Youngmin for their generosity and support. Thanks also to Professors David McCann and Lee Young-Jun for introducing me to the work of Musan University’s Korea Institute. Special thanks to our intern, Bella Dalton-Fenkl, and to David Lee and Peter Camilleri.


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